On Australian Soil and Lantana Springbrook Anzac Day 2018 by Doug Robbins (ex-Kiap)
The past year marked 75 years since sadly too many Australian lives were lost during World War II fighting in the South West Pacific Area – on Australian soil.
Following Pearl Harbour, Darwin at the north of mainland Australia was bombed in February 1942 with loss of many servicemen and civilians, then Broome the next month.
We know that Darwin is part of Australia, but little is acknowledged that Papua, a former British Colony at the southeast quarter of the island of New Guinea to our north and only four kilometres from the Torres Strait Islands of our State of Queensland, for almost one hundred years to 1975 was a Territory of Australia. The fierce jungle battles such as Kokoda, Milne Bay and the Beachheads were fought on what was then Australian soil.
In August 1942, at the same time as Kokoda in the Papuan Campaign, Australian Forces were defending Airfields at Milne Bay to protect Port Moresby and Australia to the south. Milne Bay was free of fighting in September. The Australians, plus Americans fresh from Camp Cable south of Brisbane were flown to a newly cleared airstrip at remote Wanigela between Milne Bay and enemy occupied Buna. Operation Wanigela Hatrack planned that these 4000 troops would march overland to Pongani and then cut off the enemy retreating from Kokoda. But the flooded Musa River saw them transported forward by the US Army Small Ships hastily acquired from around Australia and New Zealand. Meanwhile, 113 Australian Commandoes walking one day ahead did make it through in 35 days – the same walk took me seven days unburdened almost 50 years ago. By January 1943 many lives were lost in the Battle of the Beachheads at Buna, Sanananda and Gona.
The book The Rag Tag Fleet gives a brief account of the soldiers’ walk from Wanigela across the Musa River and the vast Agaiambo Swamp then on to Pongani and the battlefields. A journalist who joined the soldiers for a short part of the long walk wrote these words:
Then for the first time they realised what jungle warfare really could mean without actual combat. They staggered along with sixty pounds each on their backs under a broiling New Guinea sun that was frequently obscured by sudden torrential downpours. But the rain brought little relief to the sweltering soldiers because after a rain, the jungles in the lowlands were turned into dank, steaming morasses that dragged them down to their hips in their sticky, slimy embrace. Sharp, stiff undergrowth shredded their clothing and tore legs, arms and faces.
On top of all this were the myriad insect pests of the jungle – swarms of malarial mosquitoes which could bite through thick drill trousers, land crabs of all kinds, voracious large brown ants and persistent sandflies and leeches. (From personal experience in the hills towards Safia at Middle Musa, I would add microscopic scrub typhus mites that cause an itchy rash and can be fatal).
Back to our soldiers’ trek: The boys were caked with slimy mud that covered them from head to foot. But they could always wash or swim in any of the numerous little streams they had to wade through, and there they had nothing to worry about except the crocodiles, which even the natives feared more than sharks.
In 1972 after two years as the Government Patrol Officer in the Wanigela/Tufi area I was transferred to Kokoda with my wife Annette and our baby. In that year, our little Papuan outpost welcomed back, with their families, 40 survivors of the 39th Battalion raised for service in Papua, for the 30th Anniversary of the Kokoda Trail Campaign. It was obvious that these brave men still suffered physically and mentally from the Kokoda Battle. One man had recurring skin rashes while another who had been cared for by a nurse since the War wandered off up the track looking for his mate. Bert Kienzle, who during the War organised the Fuzzy Wuzzy Angel carriers, killed a beast and we all had an enjoyable barbeque with our visitors, billeted for three days on the Station and at the Kienzle’s.
Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels were all the able-bodied men of the native population rounded up from around the Papuan coast from Daru to Tufi beyond Wanigela, who capably worked alongside our soldiers and the likes of Papuan Infantry Battalion’s Sergeant Katue, the first Papuan awarded the Military Medal for his exploits in the Popondetta/Wanigela locality. In rural Papua, Pidgin wasn’t common. Randolph my loyal Interpreter during our days at Wanigela-Musa died not long before Annette and my revisiting New Guinea since 2009. He was one of the Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels – medical orderly, carrier and labourer.
No Poppies grow along the Kokoda Track. For burial services the Padre would pick a lantana-like flower native to the jungle beside the path as a symbol of remembrance for the life given in service of our country – Australia. To this day veterans of the 39th Militia, the only Battalion to have the “Kokoda Trail” battle honour, lay a sprig of lantana alongside a red poppy in memory of their comrades either fallen on the battlefields of Papua New Guinea or claimed by age.
More Australians died fighting in Papua than in any other World War II Campaign.
For younger generations who may wish to know a bit more of our history, I add the following:
Mention of both the South West Pacific Area and Papua is a subtle reference (without spending more time to explain it to my Springbrook audience) to the status of Militia volunteer conscripts – akin to the later Citizens Military Force (CMF) and today’s Reserve volunteers.
In 1939 there was large-scale opposition to the concept of conscription and provisions of the Defence Act precluded conscripts from serving outside Australian territory. Papua was conveniently a Territory, hence my specifically referring to the 39th of Kokoda as Militia (second last paragraph).
The Papuan Campaign was from 21 July 1942 to 22 January 1943.
On 26 January 1943 changes to the Act meant that Militia were able to serve anywhere south of the Equator in the South West Pacific Area (SWPA).
Further information on most places, events, people, facts, phrases etc. mentioned is nowadays discoverable by Internet searches. Any clarifications, please contact me by email or +61 7 5533 5656 or +61 407 143214.